N$«2Ssfc%$SS# FOREWORD From time to time, issues of CANADIAN AF- FAIRS have been devoted to broad questions touching the future of every Canadian* But the time has come to get down to cases. So alter- nating with the regular issues we shall publish a series of Reconstruction Supplements, each dealing more thoroughly with a narrower field of activity. If we began alphabetically with Accountants, it might be years before we reached the potential Toolmakers in your group. (By the way, the Canadian Legion has pre- pared excellent pamphlets for the Services* under the general title "Let's Consider Jobs", outlining what is to be expected of both these occupations, among many others.) After all, when we are qualified as accountants or what not, we have still to choose among the very wide variety of firms that may employ us. And we shall con- tinue for the rest of our days to be affected by the products and policies of each of Canada's major in- dustries, no matter where we happen to work. What service does the industry perform for Cana- dians? What will be its role in a fully employed Canada? What does it offer in pay and opportunities to those looking for jobs? Is its trading position likely to change? Is the Canadian public giving the industry a boost? Is the industry returning the compliment? This looks like a tall order. Let's have a look at the Textile Industry, and see how many in your group will bet their shirts on entering it, and how they may August 4, fare as compared with the rest of the group, who'll be 1945 buying shirts — from them. JOBS IN TEXTILES 1 The streets of Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Winni- peg, Vancouver and points in between are displaying a higher proportion of civilian clothes these days. They CONVERTING aren't yet "civvy" streets, and won't be while the war ^0 CIVVIES with Japan continues; but a lot of repats are out of uniform already. Everywhere, there's a strange mixture of 1939 and 1945 styles. Getting clothes these days isn't too easy. Changing back to civilian clothing production won't be complete, of course, until after Japan is defeated. However some SHOPPING FOR goods are beginning to appear in larger quantities. As it stands now, the possession of a uniform helps a lot in getting a suit. Service people have a priority for what material there is. Let's take a look at this clothing, or rather, textile manufacturing business. What's involved in making THAT'S IT "civvies"? Who does the work? Where do they do it? ALL ABOUT? Where did our textile industry come from? Where is it going? What's it like working at making cloth? What are the possibilities for jobs? The Place of Textiles in Canadian Manufacturing We can start with a few general indications of the place textiles occupy in the Canadian economy. Textile manufacturing in 1939 employed about 18 out of every 100 Canadian workers in all manufacturing industries. It turned out about #10 in each #100 worth of indus- WHFp - nn trial products. The industry occupied 8 out of every TEXTILES STAND? 100 factories in the country. It paid #14 out of every #100 paid in wages and salaries for all Canadian manu- facturing. Of all the capital invested in Canadian manufacturing, nearly 10% was invested in textile plants. The cost-of-living experts believe that nearly WORKERS, WAGES AND PRODUCTS 1943 EMPLOYEES $ WAGES AND SALARIES $ NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION TEXTILE! 158,000 $191,000,000 $334,000,000 ALL MANUFACTURING 1,241,000 $1,987,000,000 $3,806,000,000 A CENTURY AND A HALF SEEKING INDEPENDENCE $12 out of every $100 is spent by the average family on clothing. That puts textiles into the top brackets of Canadian industry. By any standard you choose textiles are in the first half-dozen industries. Textiles Have a Long Past Canada's clothing industry has a long history. We used to recall it to tourists (in the days when there wene tourists) by showing them highly-prized spinning wheels and weaving looms carefully kept in the older districts of the country. Some of these instruments date back more than a century and a half. They used to be standard home equipment like smoke-houses and churns and other essentials of a self-sufficient com- munity. But the home manufacturing plant is out now, except in a few districts. Over a hundred years ago it was replaced by the factory with automatic machines to spin fibres into yarn, and power looms to weave yarn into cloth. What had been a handicraft became an industry. The industry grew and played an increasingly im- portant part in the business life of the country. As Canada approached maturity, our grandfathers became unwilling to see the country remain merely a source of raw materials. The encouragement of the textile in- dustry was one of the measures taken to develop a more varied pattern of production. This meant that we could manufacture finished goods as well as produce raw materials. Materials Cotton fibres have long been available from the United States and we have developed sources of power, labour, and capital as we have needed them. It was the Civil War in the United States which aided the de- velopment of the cotton industry in Canada because of its interference with the flow of cotton goods. We were COTTON able to get the raw material, but we had to process it ourselves. In the years that followed we developed an important industry. By 1943 we had a cotton manu- facturing industry in which the gross 4 value of produc- tion was about #15,000,000. The United States influenced the development of Canada's woollen industry in another way. In this case we had plenty of the raw material we needed but we had exported much of it to the States for manufac- turing into cloth. However, in 1866 the United States imposed duties on Canadian wool that made it neces- WOOL sary, as well as desirable, that we develop our own in- dustry to use the wool and supply our own market. A great deal of history is summed up in the fact that by THE INDUSTRY SHRINKS & STRETCHES l ESTABLISH- WAGES GROSS MENTS & SALARIES PRODUCTION YEAR 1929 EACH PLANT jjgj 300 EACH [I) $25,000,000 EACH UNIT Q 100,000,000 lu iw Li ]u L» Q ffi Si ffij fiu aaas QQQQ 1933 DDBDlBEi aaa JJl 19S9 L L L L L L lc ■i nranns saaat QQQQ 1943 S C C Q y m S; E aaaaaaai QQQQQQQC FROM 0.1.5. DATA 1942 the gross value of products of the woollen in- dustry totalled #101,620,000. The silk industry has developed largely since con- federation and its importance has increased with the SILK discovery of methods for producing artificial silk (rayon). These fibres are referred to as synthetic fibres. Between 1924 when the first artificial silk plant was built in Cornwall, Ontario, and 1936, Canadian artificial silk yarn production increased from just over 500,000 yards to nearly 14,000,000 yards annually. In 1935 the natural silk industry production had a gross value of #446,000 against an artificial silk gross value of #6,798,000. The formqr employed 186 workers and the latter 2,169. By 1943 they had a gross value taken together of #50,440,000. These three materials are the sources of most of the textiles we make in Canada. There are a great many processes and people involved in changing them from raw fibres into goods ready to take home,, It takes about 2,000 factories to accommodate the industry. The factories aren't so romantic as the early devices appear to us now, but they are more effective. They can do more in a day than our ancestors could do in a month. One operator can handle more than a hundred automatic spindles — the machines that twist and wind the thread. Corresponding efficiency with the looms provides us with most of our cloth in much less time. MEN AND MACHINES Published for use as discussion material in the Canadian Armed Forces. Distributed to civilian groups through the Canadian Council of Education for Citizenship. May be reprinted for similar purposes, with or without acknowledgment. THE FABRIC INDUSTRIES 2 Textile manufacturing is really a series of industries — from those that secure the raw materials to those that sew on buttons. The industries begin with three main materials: cotton fibres, woollen fibres and synthetic fibres. With each material the whole process is divided into two parts known as primary and secondary. Primary Stage The primary stage covers the processes required to transform the animal, vegetable and synthetic fibres (cotton and wool and silk) into threads and from threads into cloth. Towels, blankets, underwear, ho- siery, velvets, draperies, upholstery, tire fabrics, canvas and carpets are all regarded as primary textile prod- ucts, because they leave the loom almost ready to be sold to the user. In 1941, more than 85,000 Canadians were em- ployed in primary textile processing. They were doing the spinning, weaving, pattern designing, dyeing and TEXTILE JOBS knitting required to transform raw materials into various kinds of cloth. Secondary Stage The secondary textile industry uses this cloth for the manufacture of innumerable articles ranging from the cap on your head to the linoleum under your feet. Among other things the industry produces men's suits and women's dresses, hats, caps, haberdashery, corsets, cotton and jute bags, oiled and waterproof clothing, cordage, rope and twine, awnings, tents and sails, oil- cloth, curtains, window blinds and backing for linoleum. Just about every second person employed in the textile business works at secondary textiles. Most of aSy TEXTILE their occupations are known as the "needle" trades. A jobs SOME PRIMARY TEXTILE PRODUCTS SOME PRIMARY SOME SECOND- ARY TEXTILE PRODUCTS FACTORIES JOBBERS LOCATION needle trade shop may employ a designer and a grader, a few cutters, finishers, pressers, shippers and many machine operators. The business details, as distinct from the manufacturing processes, may provide em- ployment for several salesmen, a small office staff and a manager. These are some of the secondary textile jobs. They are carried on in much smaller shops than primary processes. Seventy-two thousand garment workers and related trades-people do their work in more than 1,400 factories — about 50 employees per factory; while the eighty-five thousand primary work- ers occupy fewer than 500 mills — 170 in each mill. This multiplication of factories in the secondary textile industry has resulted in a large group of middle- men, known as jobbers, entering the textile business. These jobbers buy cloth from the relatively few pri- mary producers and sell it to the many garment shops. There's a kaleidoscopic view of the industry. That's what is meant by textiles and, in brief, that's how raw materials get to be useful articles — from cotton plants and sheeps' bodies and silk worms to furnishings for homes and clothes for humans. Where do they do it? The great part of the textile business is located in Quebec and Ontario, with some factories in the Mari- times and Manitoba and a few in the other provinces. Much of the primary industry is centered in smaller cities where available power, plentiful labour and lower taxes are attractions. Many of these communities are almost 'company towns' built around the industry and dependent on it. The butchers and barbers and mer- chants earn their living by serving the textile workers. Thus in addition to their own employees, the textile companies afford a living to a great number of others, and in turn, their ups and downs are quickly felt through the whole community. The primary textile industry is one of the few manu- facturing industries which has contributed to the growth of many small towns rather than of the large metropolitan centres like Toronto and Montreal. 8 TEXTILE PROCESSES PRIMARY -> <■ SECONDARY CLOTH GARMENT Who does it? The ratio of women to men is higher in the textile industry than it is in most others. In 1934 female wage- earners formed less than 25% of the total number of wage-earners in all manufacturing industries in Canada. At the same time, in various branches of the textile in- dustry, they averaged nearly 45%. Even this high per- centage was lower than the average in textile plants abroad. In 1941 there were 41,000 men and 36,000 women in the primary textile wage-earner class. The salaried class of primary textile employees (managers, super- visors, chemists, engineers, clerical staff and so on) con- sisted of 5,000 men and 3,000 women. In secondary textiles, there were 19,000 male and 42,000 female wage-earners, with 7,000 male and 3,000 female salaried personnel. This distinction between wage-earners and salaried groups is accounted for by the fact that most textile employees are paid on an hourly basis. It will be seen that primary textiles have just about 10% in the salaried class, while in secondary textiles the percentage is between 15% and 20%. The industry employs proportionately more young people than others do. 1931 figures show that all manu- facturing industries considered together employ just over 20% of their male help, and just under 60% of the female employees, under 25 years of age. In the woollen, cotton and hosiery divisions of textiles, well over 40% of male employees and about 70% of female employees are under 25. WOMEN WORKERS WAGE AND SAURY WORKERS YOUTHFUL WORKERS 9 OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS WORKING HOURS BEFORE THE WAR HOURS DURING THE WAR What is it like working at Textile Making? Nowadays very little muscular effort and only a moderate term of training are required for most opera- tions in the making of cloth; this accounts partly for the number of women and young persons employed. While great physical strength is not required, re- sistance to mental and physical strain is. The machines work at high speed and require constant watching. There are no diseases specifically associated with textile occupations in the way that silicosis is associated with mining. But heat, humidity, lint, dust, dye and noise all contribute to nervous strain and physical disorders. Mills differ in the quality of their ventilation systems and the conveniences and facilities provided for em- ployees. In the report of the Royal Commission on the Textile Industry (Ottawa 1938) it is pointed out that "while improvements are made from time to time the conditions in many mills are still below modern factory standards". When it came to report on working hours, the Commission noted that the textile industry in Canada had to be placed alongside those in the least advanced group of nations. "As the situation now is", the Report said in 1938, "Canada is still in the first group with China, India and Japan". The knitted goods division was the only branch of our textile industry in which, before the war, the Com- mission found as many as a quarter of the workers en- joying a normal work week of 48 hours or less. During the war years, however, hours of work in the textile industry have not been very different from the average for the other leading Canadian manufacturing industries. UNIONS Union Organization Management in the primary textile industry has with few exceptions been slow to accept the principle of collective bargaining, despite the fact that its inter- national counterparts in Britain, the United States and continental Europe have long accepted the practice or 10 QvvifStiifi No. 14 /TV'S' L-r EWS August 4 f 1945 HURRY HOME-BUILDING THE demand for homes is so urgent that one scheme after another is being undertaken to get the work moving on thousands of new dwellings. The Dominion Government, through Wartime Housing Limited and by agree- ment with various municipalities, has already built 1,123 houses of a permanent or semi-permanent type for rent to ex-members of the Armed Forces or to dependents of those still in the forces, and has another 1,414 houses under con- struction or under negotiation — be- sides some 17,000 wartime houses built for workers in war plants. Recently, the part that can be played by insurance companies in helping to finance home-building has been under discussion. Now the government has put forward a plan which would clear the way for the building industry to start house construction on a very large scale. Briefly, the idea is that a builder (or group of builders) who undertakes to build houses for sale to servicemen and ex-servicemen, will be able to borrow money under the National Housing Act (N.H.A.) on the same basis as a man who under- takes to build for himself. The builder, under such an arrange- ment, will have to develop a substantial area of land in ac- cordance with plans approved by the N.H.A. ; the houses will be of good low-cost types, also ap- proved by the N.H.A.; and they must be sold only to members or ex-members of the Armed Forces or their dependents, at least until they are finished and ready. Each house will be sold at not more than $350, $425 or $500 above its lending value, depending on whether it has two, three or four bedrooms. (The lending value* will be determined in advance for each house in each project by the N.H.A., at approximately the estimated cost of construction.) The government, for its part, will undertake to buy, at its lending value, any house that may remain unsold a year after con- struction. Builders will be as- sisted to obtain materials, and labour for this job will be given the highest priority. Replying to your Inquiry... PLAN TO CO-OPERATE WITH NEIGHBOURS Before coming into the Army three years ago, I worked with my brother-in-law on his farm. I have no investment in the farm myself, but took special interest in everything just as though I had. I worked on a percentage basis mostly. On my discharge from the Army, could I buy a farm located near him and have it equipped, to as great an extent as money permits, under the Veterans' hand Act? My plan would be to farm about 160 acres, but I could not do this as I wish without quite a lot of machinery. Is there any rule which prevents us from continuing to work together, with the machinery he has and what new stock I can get? — Tpr, Barrie, Ont. You would seem to be in a good position to start farming under V.L.A. In particular, the V.L.A. officials encourage a veteran to co-operate with established farmers in the neighbourhood, exchanging where possible the use of machinery in order to economise. YOU MIGHT TAKE UP CROWN LAND I want to get started again in the mink-raising business, in conjunction with fishing, but I would need more capital for land, buildings, breeding stock, cages, boats and gear than I could get under the V.L.A. Can you tell me how I might be able to finance the undertaking! — Gnr, 2nd, HAA, RCA, CAOS. Some of the provincial governments are co-operating with the Dominion Government to settle veterans on Crown lands under the V.L.A. You might be able to find a suitable location for your mink farm on wild land which you could get on quite favourable terms. Under the V.L.A. an outright grant of up to $2,320 may be made to a veteran settling on provincial lands, for purchase of commercial fishing equip- ment, fur farming equipment (not including breeding stock) building material, farm livestock, machinery and household equipment. Get in touch with the Department of Lands and Mines of the province where you intend to settle. 4 'LEARNING-EARNINGS' ' In Civvy Street News of February 15th, 1945, it states that "learning-earnings" are fixed at about 80 per cent of the rate of pay ordinarily received by a fully trained person in the same line of work. I have about three years of my apprenticeship to complete in a composing room. The scale of pay for a journeyman in my home town is ninety cents per hour. Does this mean that if I go back to complete the learning of my trade, the least hourly rate of pay I can expect from the company and the Department of Veterans Affairs jointly will run around seventy-two cents per hour? — Coder, HMC Ship. First we must distinguish between two things: on the one hand, reinstating employees in their former jobs, and on the other hand, training on the job for new workers in an KNOW YOUR REHAB RIGHTS: FREE MEDICAL TREATMENT • CLOTHING ALLOWANCES • REHABILITATION GRANT • REINSTATEMENT IN JOBS IE-ESTABLISHMENT CREDIT • A HOME OUTSIDE TOWN • FARMING OPPORTUNITIES • VOCATIONAL TRAINING UNIVERSITY TRAINING • MAINTENANCE GRANTS How do they work? How do they affect YOUR future? They are all part of Canada's Rehabilitation Program, designed to help you on the road ahead. Keep informed. Send in your questions to Editor, Civvy Street News, Wartime Information Board, Ottawa. Extra copier of Civvy Street News are available on request. Contents may be reprinted with or without acknowledgment. industry. If any man who is an apprentice enlists in the Armed Forces, his employer is obliged by law to re -employ him after discharge. The wage to be paid depends then, we believe, on the terms of the apprentice agreement or indenture under which he was originally engaged. If the agreement calls for increases in wages based on length of service, then your service in the forces would count as service with the employer, for this purpose. However, if your agreement calls for wage increases based on increasing skill, you would probably be re-engaged at the same wage as when you left the em- ployer, unless you have increased your trade skill while in the forces. It doesn't seem as if the training-on-the-job plan would exactly apply to your case. VETERANS INSURANCE Where would I apply for Veterans Insurance! — Ex-Cpl, N.B. You can apply through any of the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Centres in Canada, or write to the Superintendent of Veterans Insurance, Department of Veterans Affairs, Daly Building, Ottawa. MAKE THE MOST OF V.L.A. TERMS / plan soon after discharge to take up a small holding under the V.L.A. Can I do most of the actual work on my house ', and hire contractors to do some of the more difficult jobs, such as plumbing and tinsmithing? This would cut down labour costs. Can I use the $6 ; 000 allotted for property and buildings alone, or must I use only $4,800 for buildings ard land, and the other $1 ,200 for furniture and tools? —LAC, RCAF, B.C. We should think you could work on your own house, as you suggest, if your work- manship is reasonably sound. Under the V.L.A. it is possible to use up to $6,000 for land and buildings; but remember that 10% of the value of land and buildings is required as a down payment, and % of their value must be repaid. Whereas if part of the available funds, up to $1,200, is used for buying stock and equipment instead, it does not have to be repaid, provided the veteran sticks to his contract for 10 years. STUDY MUST HAVE AN AIM / intend to go on to the University as soon as I am discharged, to take the Arts course which I had been planning. Can I choose my subjects quite freely, or do I have to follow a set program! —Lieut (S), WRCNS. In order to qualify for assistance under the rehabilitation scheme, you will have to prove to the satisfaction of your rehabilitation counsellor that the courses and subjects you enroll for will actually help you to make a living later on. REHAB ROUNDUP NOBODY ARRIVING IN CANADA will have far to look for a job, at least while conditions remain as they are now. The Dominion Department of Labour reveals that in mid-July there were 128,000 jobs to be filled throughout Canada, with less than 50,000 workers registered as seeking employment. Industries that are seriously short-handed at present are farm- ing, building construction, mining, pulp- wood cutting, west coast logging, and shipbuilding on both coasts. Women workers are needed for textile mills, cloth- ing factories, hosiery mills, food processing plants and rubber factories, as well as for hospitals, sanatoria and other services. WHAT GOES ON IN THE DEPT. OF Veterans Affairs is indicated by a report of the rehabilitation officials of the Montreal division for the month of June. They received calls from 1,517 employers, in- volving 4,483 jobs; placed 1,657 veterans; counselled 2,177 regarding their occupa- tions, including 54 taking university courses and 93 in vocational training; interviewed 1,740 regarding re-establish- ment credits and approved 727 applications, involving over $115,000. Over the past three years, these rehabili- tation officials have dealt with 10,000 people, from all services, and have found that failures are comparatively few. They are urging employers, who keep asking chiefly for men under thirty, to realize that a large proportion of veterans are older, and to change their employment policies accordingly. ALEX WALKER, DOMINION PRES- ident of the Canadian Legion, on his return from an overseas tour, urged the government to ensure that no permanent appointments to Civil Service positions shall be made until members of the forces have an equal opportunity with others to compete for them. The Prime Minister replied that permanent appointments are being made only in the cases of veterans, civilians who qualified prior to the war and have been continuously employed since, and a very limited number of persons with special technical qualifications not to be found in sufficient numbers in the Armed Forces. THAT PRE-ENLISTMENT JOB IS YOURS if you want it, but you have to go back within three months after discharge in order to claim it. Just to make sure the former employer can check with you on whether he should hold the position open, the Depot now informs him immediately upon your discharge, gi-^ing the date and your civilian address. A NEW INDUSTRY FOR THE NORTH- land is fishing on a commercial scale in Great Slave Lake, NWT. Forty or fifty gill-net fishermen are now at work catch- ing whitefish and trout, which will be quick-frozen and shipped in refrigerated barges to railhead at Waterways, Alta. COLLEGE PREPARATORY COURSES for veterans, beginning in September, are offered by Sir George Williams College, Montreal, in co-operation with McGill University. About a hundred ex-service men and women are now enrolled in such FOR AMBITIOUS NEWSWRITERS, A four-year B.A. course in journalism is being offered this fall by the University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. This course will be the first of its kind in Canada. TO HELP MEET THE INCREASED costs of dealing with student veterans, the Canadian government will pay a supple- mentary grant of $150 to any university in Canada for each person enrolled there whose tuition fees are paid by the Depart- ment of Veterans Affairs. i HOW MUCH FOR HOW LONG?... FIGURES FOR 1941 HOURLY RATE EACH = 10* PER HR. HOURS PER WEEK 1 EACH JL =10 HOURS MEN 66666< PRIMARY WOMEN ffi) 6666 MEN 66661 SECONDARY WOMEN 6666 1 INVESTED even encouraged it as a logical development. In the textile industry labour organizations have progressed very slowly. Labour in the secondary textile industry has always been better organized than it has been in the primary industry. Ownership Canada has had control of the capital invested in the textile industry. British and American interests have invested substantially in Canadian textiles but not CAPITAL nearly to the point of control. In 1933 the largest non- Canadian investment was a 23^2% share of the hosiery industry held by United States capital. Relations among the directors and managers in the primary industry have been very close. Woollen, cot- ton and silk manufacturers have each had separate trade associations and a common Primary Textile In- stitute. Most of these trade associations set themselves four main objectives: (a) to provide a single voice for the industry in the various legislative centres; (b) to promote the sale of Canadian textiles abroad; (c) to foster the goodwill of the general public; (d) to ex- change ideas among the member firms. The Royal Com- TRADE ASSOCIATIONS 11 CONTROL CONCENTRA- TION OF DIRECTORATES mission found that these associations devoted their main attention to two activities, described as "the pro- motion of tariff protection and the regulation of com- petition among their members". Apart from the manufacture of cellulose acetate yarns and viscose yarn in the artificial silk industry, there are no absolute monopolies (complete control of an industry by one company) in Canadian textiles. But there have been close working relations, among the primary textile companies in particular. Organization of the Textile Industry A Royal Commission study of industry reported in 1937 that the characteristic form of organization in the textile industry is the incorporated company operating under federal or provincial government charters. Con- centration of control hadn't developed nearly as much as in other industries. However, different groups of companies in the industry represented different phases of competitive business. Competition was sharpest in the woollen group where the largest single company had only 12.5% of the total sales of the group. In the biggest group in all textiles, cotton manufac- turers, the largest company, together with a controlled subsidiary, had 48% of the total sales. Two other com- panies together had 31% of the sales, which left 21% for the remaining companies. The Commission noted an increasing degree of con- centration in the whole primary textile industry through interlocking directorates, at least. So that, while no two or three very large corporations dominated the field, nevertheless the presence of the same management in- terests in important units in different fields (such as cotton, woollen, silk and knit goods) suggested the pos- sibility of such a development. 12 TEXTILES IN THE WAR 3 The pictographs tell part of the wartime story of Canadian textiles more completely and vividly than a few words can. But the whole story is bigger than charts and pictographs. Early in the war it became clear that individual members of the United Nations could not solve their production and manufacturing problems alone. The factors involved were too great. Resources and pro- cessing plants and labour were not easily to be found in the proper proportions in all places. Therefore, the Combined Production and Resources Board was set up to co-ordinate production and dis- tribution. Through it, Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom were able to make best use of their natural resources in meeting the demands of war. The Board had a very large influence on the textile business, among other industries. The Canadian industry, which had always drawn heavily on the United Kingdom and the United States for textile fibres with which to make its cloth, was at the outset of the war able to continue the practice; but it had to satisfy the Combined Board officials that it was making the maximum contribution with the materials. Production figures over the war years show what Canada was able to do with those resources. There were several major jobs. In the first place we had our own armed forces to clothe and equip. We had respon- sibility, too, for meeting some British and other Allied clothing needs. Finally, there were some civilian re- quirements which could not be neglected. Wartime Controls In order to maintain any kind of balance between STATISTICS HAVE A PLACE PROBLEMS OF PRODUCTION COMBINED PRODUCTION AND RESOURCES BOARD RAW MATERIAL SOURCES WARTIME OBJECTIVES 13 COMPLICATIONS PRODUCTION DIRECTIVES THEY STILL WORK MAKERS' NAMES PRICE TAGS INSPECTION STAFF textiles available and textiles required with competing demand and controlled supply, uncertain labour supply and urgent need, it was obviously necessary to have controls at work. The controls were operated through the Wartime Prices and Trade Board which was set up to handle just such problems. The Board emphasized maximum production of essentials rather than prohibition of non-essentials. When more greatcoats or parachutes or webbing were needed, it saw to it that the plants manufacturing these articles got the materials they needed. When civilian needs became urgent, whether for children's shoes or women's underwear, allocations of the quantities re- quired were made to manufacturers by the W.P.T.B. The allocations were known as "production directives." These "production directives" not only made available such things as woollen fabrics (in the case of a textiles directive) but also other materials essential to the product, such as elastic, zippers, leather and so on. The "directives" also helped the factories to secure neces- sary labour through National Selective Service. In every case that "directives" were issued, the companies concerned had to account for the use of the materials. This system of directives was begun in July 1943 and is still being used (summer 1945). In every case directives raised production to higher levels. Price and Quality Controls Efforts were made by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board not only to control the prices of clothing but also to ensure that the quality was maintained. The standards were strengthened in 1944 and 1945 by a series of orders requiring manufacturers to identify themselves by labelling practically all garments and footwear sold in the retail market. In addition, re- tailers were required to attach a price tag to practically every item of men's, women's and children's clothing. The Board maintains an inspection staff to ensure the enforcement of these and other orders which control the prices and quality of textile products* 14 Wartime Production In general, textile production during the war reached proportions far beyond what was expected. Production of woollen fabrics has increased about 40% over pre-war days. Cotton fabrics rose between 18%- 40%; the production of rayon fabrics practically doubled. The textile production job was accomplished in the face of a continuously inadequate labour supply. Labour priorities possessed by munitions manufacturers and other war industries, combined with the attractions of higher wage industries left textiles with problems of inexperience, inefficiency, absenteeism and rapid staff turnover — all of which impaired production. Labour and Management These conditions required the very closest of co- operation between labour and management. Part of this was achieved through the establishment of Labour- Management Production Committees. Alongside their importance in some other industries the Labour-Man- agement Production Committees appear to have played only a very minor role in this one. By March 1945, there were 23 such committees in the textile industry, representing a total of 6,550 workers. Labour-Manage- ment Production Committees provide ? 'a two-way channel of communication between management and labour". In general, as cabinet ministers pointed out, the committees served "to increase the output of war goods, to lower costs, and to improve efficiency". They "pro- moted industrial co-operation by creating a better understanding and mutual confidence between manage- ment and labour". Their benefits to production through the elimina- tion of bottlenecks and the improvement of production methods were important. The committees were also of value in improving the workers' lot. Labour Gains During the war years, labour has made many gains* PRODUCTION LABOUR SHORTAGE LABOUR- MANAGEMENT PRODUCTION COMMITTEES 15 BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS UNION RECOGNITION SOME ESTIMATES PLENTY TO DO Working conditions in primary textiles particularly have improved: improved by installation of cafeterias, and rest rooms; holidays with pay; by the establish- ment of up-to-date personnel departments; by afford- ing instruction to beginners and by the organization of social and welfare projects. The 1945 Manual of the Textile Industry of Canada claimed that "while employers in all sections of textiles have, in general, refused to accept the principle of the closed shop, they have, in many cases, welcomed efforts on the part of workers to extend unionization". The extent to which workers in textiles have actually ex- tended organization during the war years is indicated by the figures. Available figures show a wartime in- crease in primary textile union membership from over 10,000 in 1939 to 17,000 in 1943; while in secondary textiles there was an increase from 20,000 to over 26,000 members. Wage Increases Most important of the gains made by labour has been that of wages. Rough estimates of increases in individual weekly earnings in four main divisions of textiles between 1939 and 1944 follow: Cotton yarn 8C cloth 54% Woollen yarn 8C cloth 47% Silk & artificial silk 38% Garments 8C furnishings 51% Notwithstanding these improvements in wages, more continuous employment, union status, and gen- eral conditions, and in spite of urgent textile needs, far more workers were needed in textiles in the summer of 1945 than in any other manufacturing industry. Textile requirements following the defeat of Ger- many were no less urgent than before. Civilian needs at home increased with the repatriation of service per- sonnel. UNRRA, Red Cross and other relief require- ments had greatly increased. Military commitments both for Canadian forces and for the Allies had still to be met. At the same time, textile yarns and fibres previously available from Great Britain and the United States were more difficult to secure. 16 THE OUTLOOK AFTER THE WAR 4 The future of the industry in Canada cannot be separated from the future of the whole of Canada's economy — iron and steel industry, chemicals, pulp and paper, construction, and all the rest of our manufac- 1^^]™?!! turing industries. Textiles are essential commodities ECONOMY but the demand for textiles is more flexible than, say, the demand for foodstuffs, and that means it will be affected more seriously by employment fluctuations. The immediate post war objectives of the textile industry are perfectly clear cut. The transition period will be needed to replace obsolete and worn machinery with modernized and new equipment as soon as REBUILDING materials, machinery and labour become available. The industry plans some new buildings and renovated plants, but it does not expect a large expansion of productive facilities. If the increased wage rates which have been gained by workers during the war are to be maintained they must be protected by increased plant and manu- facturing efficiency. Increased efficiency in operation must also be con- tinuously sought to put the textile industry in a better position to compete if lower tariffs should result from post-war international trade agreements. The textile TARIFFS industry has been protected from American and British textile competition by means of tariffs imposed on tex- tile imports. The possibility of removing this tariff protection would mean an important readjustment in the industry. The industry does not have the problem of re-tool- ing which faces some other industries. Civilian textiles NO RETOOLING are made with the same type of machinery and labour force as are used for military textiles. As a result, it is PROTECTING WAGE GAINS REQUIRED 17 one of the few industries which can turn immediately from war to peace production. Jobs in the Industry The major problem facing the industry in the sum- mer of 1945 is a reduced skilled labour supply in all branches. Available statistics indicated that in May 1945, there were about 150,000 full time employees in the Canadian textile industry. About the same time a survey conducted by the Financial Post indicated a shortage of about 10,000 workers, largely in primary textiles. That shortage plus the number of present employees who leave the industry after the war for reasons of HELP WANTED age, health, families and so on indicates the number of workers the industry will require for the conversion period. Beyond that period, the textile industry must con- tinue to operate with the same proportions of human and natural resources if it is to play its part in a Cana- dian economic effort aiming at full employment. In other words, there are employment opportunities in the textile industry at the present time. Further, there are satisfactory assurances that everything the industry can produce will be required for the full transition period between war and peace. It is an industry in which skilled labour is needed and in which the conversion from simplified wartime styles to the more attractive and varied peace-time designs will offer oppottunities for those equipped and interested. The industry itself is giving attention to instruction methods for both experienced and inex- perienced employees, as well as to the need for research. In general terms, the industry is looking for work- ers. The greater number of its recruits, to judge from what we have seen, will be in the younger age groups. And most of them will need only a moderate amount of training. There is a good chance that someone in your group will be among those workers. 18 QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Here are two ways of getting at some of the central facts and problems mentioned in the article: 1. The page references in the parentheses below refer to sources of material on a few of the issues involved. (a) On the proportion of women and young people in the industry. (9 & 10). (b) On the subjects of wages, hours, and union organi- zation. (9, 11 & 16). (c) On the industry's interest in research and training. (18). (</) On the question of public assistance for the industry (tariffs). (17). (e) On the increase in employment and production during the war. (4, 15 8C 16). 2, For getting at specific factual information contained in the article direct questions may be useful. Here are some samples: (a) What processes are included in the primary textile industry? (7). (b) From what countries does Canada import most of the textile fibres she needs? (13). (c) What is a 'production directive'? (14). id) In what Canadian provinces are most textiles manu- factured? (8). (e) What are some objectives of Trade Associations? (12). (/) What does the average family spend on clothing? (4). (g) What does a jobber do? (8). (h) What is the difference between a salaried worker and a wage earner? (10). CANADIAN AFFAIRS Reconstruction Supplements are intended for those in the Services who want to discuss realistically the Canada in which they will work after the war. The Supplements are prepared by the Wartime Informa- tion Board and will appear fortnightly, alternating with the regular issue of CANADIAN AFFAIRS. 19 DESIGNED BY THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD * OTTAWA : KDMOND CLOUTIER, PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY PRINTED IN CANADA, 1945.